Retrieved January 25, University of Illinois Press. Early Chicago. Early Chicago, Inc. Retrieved August 8, It Happened in Chicago.
Globe Pequot. Oxford University Press. Edwardsville Intelligencer. October 17, Retrieved August 15, — via Newspapers. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Calumet beginnings: ancient shorelines and settlements at the south end of Lake Michigan. Indiana University Press.
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Bennett to Major De Peyster, 9th Augt. Bennett to Major De Peyster, Sept. That Noble Country: the Romance of the St. Clair River Region.
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Mitts cites her source as "the old Day Book and Ledger" of the Pinery. April The New England Magazine. In Quaife, Milo M ed. The John Askin Papers. Volume 1: — Detroit Library Commission. Wisconsin Historical Collections. National Register of Historic Places Inventory. National Park Service. Retrieved December 1, The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Chicago Tribune. Chicago Breaking News. Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved October 16, Archived from the original on October 18, Retrieved October 17, American State Papers, Public Lands.
December Retrieved September 6, The Illinois country, — Illinois Centennial Commission. January Early Chicago Inc. French and Indians of Illinois River. Republican Job Printing Establishment. Retrieved September 7, Yale University — Avalon Project. Retrieved Retrieved September 13, Early Chicago Encyclopedia. Check rates and book a reservation before boarding a bus.
Some companies are closer than others—the better companies are located just up the main airport access road, while the lower-end discount agencies might be several miles away around the other side of the airport. When returning, be sure to allow plenty of time to find the rental lot, return the car, and ride the bus back to the terminal. Midway now has a consolidated rental facility hosting the rental counters and parking areas for all major companies. Chicago has some of the least expensive taxi fares in the US for a major city. Taxis can be hailed from the street throughout the entire city, and are most plentiful in the downtown and North Side areas.
Give the driver the nearest major intersection to which you are heading if you know it and then the specific address. There is no additional charge for baggage or credit card use, although some drivers discourage credit card payments if the distance travelled is short. If you are outside of Downtown, North Side, Near West, or Near South neighborhoods, it may be less easy to find cabs from the street and easier just to call one. Taxis typically take min from the time you call to arrive. The principal companies are:. The above applies only to Chicago taxis. Suburban taxi cabs have their own fares and rates, depending on the laws and regulations of the town in which they are based.
Cycling in Chicago can be safe and rewarding if undertaken carefully. New divided bike lanes in the Loop area are especially attractive when other modes of transportation are at full capacity. Most important to bike travel in Chicago is to plan routes ahead and make use of bike lanes and bike routes am much as possible. Interior neighborhood streets are also generally quite safe although they can be difficult to connect into a longer route.
When riding, always be mindful of your visibility to cars. With miles of vehicle-free pavement and beautiful views, the Lakefront Trail can be a very attractive option for commuting and leisure. However, the secret is out and the trail will be fully packed on fair-weather weekends with bikers, runners, walkers, strollers, skaters, and even hoverboards.
Please exercise care and courtesy during these times of peak usage. Take special care around Navy Pier at least until the trail fly-over is complete. Please look elsewhere for sporty and group riding. However, a hour pass is effectively the only option for visitors so using public transit may be cheaper for making only trips in a day. Also note that each trip is limited to just 30 minutes. Trips beyond 30 minutes will begin collecting extra charges. Also take care to ensure that your bike is properly docked green light to avoid surprise charges.
If kiosks, time limits, and heavy 3-speeds are not your speed, several businesses do offer rental of ordinary road, hybrid, and mountain bikes. Lock and helmet are generally included. For longer, more recreational trips, the Northern and Western suburbs outside of the city have many attractive options. The Illinois Prairie Path is a bicycle trail that runs through DuPage and Kane Counties where it connects with the Fox River Trail, both of which make for some very scenic bicycle riding.
Most other areas of DuPage and Kane County are crisscrossed with bicycle trails. There is also the Salt Creek Trail that starts around west suburban Brookfield and goes west to around Interstate In the summer, water taxis are sometimes more convenient than the CTA, if you are traveling around the fringes of downtown. They are also a relatively cheap way to take in some offshore views.
Two private companies operate water taxi services around the Loop. They cover admission to some museums and other tourist attractions, allowing you to cut to the front of lines, and may include discounts for restaurants and shopping. From the sternly classical to the space-age, from the Gothic to the coolly modern, Chicago is a place with an embarrassment of architectural riches.
The Chicago Fire forced the city to rebuild. It was here that steel-frame construction was invented, allowing buildings to rise above the limits of load-bearing walls. For years, the Willis Tower at that time still called Sears Tower was the tallest building in the world, but it has since lost the title. Until they do, Chicago will have to settle for having the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere with the Willis Tower, although the Hancock has a better view and is quite frankly better-looking.
There were more than two thousand churches in Chicago at the opening of the twenty-first century. Architectural tours cover the landmarks on foot and by popular river boat tours, or by just standing awestruck on a downtown bridge over the Chicago River; see individual district articles for details. Du Sable lived on the Chicago River with his family from the s to , when he sold his house to John Kinzie, whose family and friends would later claim to have founded the city. As a non-slave state generally lacking official segregation laws, Illinois was an attractive place to live for black freedmen and fugitive slaves.
The Chicago school of African-American literature distinguished itself from the East Coast by its focus on the new realities of urban African-American life. With it came southern food, Mississippi blues, and the challenges of establishing adequate housing for so many recent arrivals. In came the creation of the Chicago Housing Authority which sought to build affordable public housing for the city. However well-intentioned, the results were not good. The largest housing projects by far were the Ida B.
Wells projects; the Cabrini Green projects, which developed a reputation as the most violent housing projects in the nation; and the massive Robert Taylor Homes, which stretched for several miles. In the beginning, the housing projects were indeed decent. As the years passed, unsavory people and less maintenance proved to be the downfall of the projects. The Black Metropolis was unable to cope with this development, and surrounding neighborhoods fell with it. Today, the city has torn down most of these structures and replaced them with lower rise, mixed used buildings; which has shown to have more success than the previous dwellings.
Unwilling to live beside black neighbors, many white Chicagoans fled desegregation to the suburbs. As a result, most of Chicago neighborhoods never truly integrated at that time, and the social, educational, and economic networks that incoming non-whites had hoped to join disintegrated in the wake of fleeing white citizens.
However, there are still parts of the city that are predominantly composed of one race. Martin Luther King, Jr. However, blacks make up a larger percentage of Chicago than they do of New York City. Some Chicagoans and outsiders from other parts of the country who are ignorant of this area may tell you that it is dangerous.
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North Siders in general do not think much of the West Side or the South Side similar to the way Manhattanites in New York City do not think much of the other four boroughs of that city. Although the West Side of Chicago does contain many economically challenged neighborhoods, the reality of the South Side is more complex. On the South Side there are affluent, middle class, and economically challenged neighborhoods. Pilsen and its arts scene is an especially an exciting place to visit. Chicago has great beaches and anyone can show up and swim. The water is quite warm in the summer and early fall check with the NOAA for temperatures.
Bacteria levels in the water do force occasional closures, but they are very rare. Lifeguards will be posted when the beach is officially open. A large bird sanctuary and one of the few hills in Chicago are also located near Montrose Beach. Volleyball tournaments are occassionally held at Chicago beaches.
The city has 33 beaches of various sizes within the city limits alone. There are additional beaches in the northern suburbs as well. There are also terrific parks goin inland. Almost every neighborhood in Chicago has a beloved park. This is a linear park in the sky. This elevated greenway, created from railroad right-of-ways and its viaducts, is 2.
This type of linear park, over former rail lines, is the third such type in the entire world, after a nearly 3 mile long version in Paris, and a 1 mile long version in New York City. Most neighborhoods, parishes, and service groups host their own annual festivals throughout the spring, summer, and fall. And the city has several in the winter. All but Lollapalooza are free. With entries in every major professional sports league and several universities in the area, Chicago sports fans have a lot to keep them occupied.
Since the baseball teams split the city in half, nothing seizes the Chicago sports consciousness like a playoff run from the Bears. They are an exciting team to watch, led by star Jimmy Butler. Home games for both teams tend to sell out, but tickets can usually be found if you check around. Both the Bulls and the Blackhawks play from the end of October to the beginning of April.
Everything else is a matter of fiercely held opinion. The two three-game series when the teams play each other are the hottest sports tickets in Chicago during any given year. If someone offers you tickets to a game, pounce. There are plenty of smaller leagues in the city as well, although some play their games in the suburbs.
Minor league baseball teams dot the suburbs as well. Improvisational comedy as a performance art form is a big part of the Chicago theater scene. Founded in , they have a history of taking risks onstage, and they have the ensemble to back it up, with heavyweights like Joan Allen, John Malkovich, and Gary Sinise.
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And with so many colleges and universities in the city, study abroad opportunities abound. Whatever you need, you can buy it in Chicago, on a budget or in luxury.
Jean Baptiste Point du Sable
It includes many designer boutiques, and several multi-story malls anchored by large department stores like N Michigan and Water Tower Place. Additional brands are available from off-strip shops to the south and west of Michigan. Although no longer made in the thirteenth-floor kitchen of the State Street store, the original recipe appears to still be in use, which pleases the loyal crowds fond of the flavor — and too bad for anyone looking to avoid trans-fats.
The entire area is walkable and makes for fun window-shopping. The Walgreens drug store chain which is based in the city are also ubiquitous throughout Chicago with many locations open twenty four hours a day.
Competitor CVS also has many locations in the area. January Early Chicago Inc. French and Indians of Illinois River. Republican Job Printing Establishment. Retrieved September 7, Yale University — Avalon Project. Retrieved Retrieved September 13, Early Chicago Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 January Retrieved August 6, The City of Chicago Official Website. City of Chicago. July 11, National Historic Landmarks.
Jean Baptiste Point du Sable
Archived from the original on November 23, ABC7 news. Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved November 25, December 8, SC A6. Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved January 27, March 1, The New York Times. Baumann, Timothy E. Charles, Missouri" PDF.
The Missouri Archaeologist. Archived from the original PDF on October 21, Retrieved February 27, DePeyster, Arent Schuyler Dumfries and Galloway Courier Office. Graham, Shirley Julian Messner. Retrieved August 26, Kinzie, Juliette Derby and Jackson. Meehan, Thomas A. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Pacyga, Dominic A. Chicago: A Biography. University of Chicago Press. Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan Report of the Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan. Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Company. Quaife, Milo Milton Chicago and the Old Northwest, — The University of Chicago Press.
Reed, Christopher R. June Journal of Black Studies.