That is what I had sensed, thinking of Dora Bruder and faced with the ostensibly trivial images of Premier rendez-vous. This passage is representative of the way that research informs so much of the fabric of Dora Bruder , even when Modiano does not highlight it Modiano knows that Premier rendez-vous first played in Normandy; knows when it came to Paris; has screened it multiple times.
D. H. Lawrence
He, too, is borne away by the flow of images and in his own way pulled into the experimental space of the film, where he commingles briefly with its historical viewers. This is not so much a moment when representation and referentiality fail, as a fantasy of their mad success. Much like the surrealists before him, who tended to view all barriers as in principle surmountable, given the right method, technique, frame of mind, experiment, or sheer accident, Modiano remains remarkably open to this uncanny encounter. James Clifford observes that:.
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Through this quintessential surrealist site the narrator discovers his first personal association with Dora Bruder. From day to day, with the passage of time, I find, perspectives become blurred, one winter merging into another. That of and that of In , I knew nothing of Dora Bruder. Perhaps, though not yet fully aware of it, I was following the traces of Dora Bruder and her parents. Already, below the surface, they were there. Modiano inserts Dora Bruder and her parents into a space that his own absent center has made available.
However, this communing between absences—his and theirs—marks the beginning of a long and meticulous process in which Modiano uses all his resources to glimpse the lived experience of the lost girl. He frequently evokes the sense of emptiness he feels in various demolished areas, notably a section of the Marais neighborhood, where Eastern European Jewish immigrants lived between the world wars.
Of the new structures erected there, Modiano writes:. The facades are rectangular, the windows square, the concrete the color of amnesia. The street lamps throw out a cold light. Here and there, a decorative touch, some artificial flowers: a bench, a square, some trees. Modiano implies that specific agents have conspired to effect the amnesia that this architecture manifests, and they stand accused. The photographs simultaneously anchor Dora Bruder in referentiality and provide a space for transferential investment and risk-filled ethical imagining.
Like surrealism, Dora Bruder is ambivalent about the role of photographs. This Barthesian punctum both inspires and reaffirms his celebration of the margin of agency Dora had in her own defiant attempts at escape before her definitive erasure. Indeed, I would argue, the text dramatizes an irreducible level of moral risk and ambiguity as a condition of possibility for the labor of recovery Modiano nonetheless embraces. I want to go on hoping that her name is there.
As the narrator of Dora Bruder , Modiano then becomes the sort of unreliable detective who narrates so many of his novels. Irreducibly, I would argue, both. The surrealists sought to liberate subjectivity and imagination, yet the Shoah exceeded the imaginable. It became almost de rigueur for post-war intellectuals to delimit their own historical, intellectual and ethical positions through a reckoning with surrealism; one recalls, for example, how Jean-Paul Sartre critiqued surrealism in his What is Literature? Maurice Nadau and James Clifford, among others, stress that surrealism, at its inception, responds to the horrible violence of the First World War, to which European morality and culture had lent the appearance of rationality and respectability.
In the wake of World War Two, the surrealists were called to account for their celebration of irrational violence—to be sure somewhat unfairly. However, what accounts for the most fundamental difference between the surrealist and postmemorial subject is the confidence the interwar surrealists had in the fulfillability of their goals and not, finally, the problematically violent means they sometimes imagined enlisting to fulfill them. Has surrealism vanished? It is no longer here or there: it is everywhere. It is a ghost, a brilliant obsession.
Dora Bruder is not a surrealist text but rather, in its own way, a ghost of surrealism. Dora Bruder dramatizes a postmemorial labor that can only be pursued via an irresolvably problematic relation to an unstable—haunted and haunting—archive. Agamben claims to explain a paradoxical structure of subjectivity at the heart of Auschwitz, which pivots on the irreducible interdependence of the inhuman and the human, desubjectification and subjectification, silence and speech.
But if the lesson that Agamben would have us learn from Auschwitz—or from the fetishized or in J. In defining all subjectivity as paradoxically constituted in abject desubjectification, however, Agamben reduces the ethical relation to the structure of subjectivity itself; subjectivity, inherently, is this impossible but inescapable relation. History becomes absorbed into a mode of subjectivity that, however theoretically sophisticated, remains hermetically sealed, self-contained. In this way, commitment to the violently silenced becomes, itself, violently silencing , and Agamben forecloses on the traces that remain of the very victims of the Shoah that he would place at the center of his re-thinking of ethics after Auschwitz.
Dora Bruder is the account of such an encounter and such a mutation. Dora Bruder negotiates a relationship to silence, to be sure, but the silence is never pure. His work of postmemorial recovery in the city where he lives and in which Dora Bruder lived is, finally, a commitment to remaining open to an idiosyncratic, murmuring archive of fragmentary traces, but traces nonetheless. And it is, indeed, at the specific point at which knowing and not knowing intersect that the language of literature and the psychoanalytic theory of traumatic experience precisely meet.
Jameson describes nostalgia as a distinctly postmodern experience of reified stereotypes of the past that come to us only via. All its effectivity lies in the distortions it produces in the symbolic universe of the subject: the traumatic event is ultimately just a fantasy-construct filling out a certain void in a symbolic structure and, as such, the retroactive effect of this structure. Invention has become an increasing necessity in order to compensate for the ever-receding horizons of the event in time, and the absence of firsthand memory dictates reliance on myth and icon as well as fact.
These terms, van Alphen maintains, confuse rather than illuminate the specific imaginative labor and creative investment of the children of survivors. The pitfall the traditional historian seeks to avoid becomes a point of departure and is, in effect, turned on its head: the problem of identification with an object of analysis becomes the necessarily vexed analysis of an elusive and irresolvably problematic object of identification.
Not having directly experienced the Holocaust era, members of that generation are compelled to research, rather than recall, what happened in and to their families. And yet, from time to time, beneath this thick layer of amnesia, you can certainly sense something, an echo, distant, muted, but of what, precisely, it is impossible to say. Like finding yourself on the edge of a magnetic field, with no pendulum to pick up the radiation.
Filming or photography forbidden. He reads Dora Bruder in tandem with W. It was in the street that significant experiences could occur, and certain places seemed to be endowed with more potency than others. What Breton found astonishing about Nadja was the completeness of her surrender to the streets and what they might hold for her. See Selected Writings Agamben explicitly rejects the sacralization of Auschwitz as unsayable. We alone must tell our own story. Even complete mutes cannot remain silent when they feel pain; they speak at such times, but in a language of their own, in sign language.
Keep silent? Leave that to the Bontshas. Bontsha is the piously passive character of I. In line with the Levinas orthodoxy, the otherwise-than-being will prima facie refer to the transcendent relation to the other, the ethical excess, and the final liberation of an existent from her tie to essence, the Spinozan conatus essendi. Nonetheless, nothing is less seamless or less secure than the transition from being to the ethical relation beyond being.
An unavoidable risk associated with such an adventure without return to the same is that the otherwise-than-being is not a homogeneous field, since it entails both the ethical approach to the Other and a de-personalized, absolutely impersonal rustling of the there is Il y a , which remains after the dissolution of hypostatized existence, of everything that is in being.
Henceforth, it will be impossible to maintain a neat separation between these two senses of the otherwise-than-being that is other even to itself, in keeping with the Levinasian figure of alterity that is wholly other both in its form and in its content. I call this double possibility terror of the ethical. Not only the ethical relation, but being itself stands in the shadow of the there is. To resort to an allegory, we could picture being as a wrinkle in the fabric of infinity.
It laughs with the terrible rumbling laughter in the face of the dull seriousness of the work of being, or the being of work, that really makes the existent disappear; even as the existent inscribed in its existence lays claim to and masters its being or its work, it suddenly dissolves behind the translucent screen of representation. Henceforth, the infinity of the there is will traverse and trouble every event of, in, and beyond being, infecting and inflecting sensation, labor, the face of the Other, and the ethical encounter.
It will invade uniqueness with anonymity, seduce the I to desecrate and eliminate the face of the Other, and fill the ethical relation itself with the terror of ceaseless giving, which cannot be harnessed or domesticated for some determinate purpose. In each case, it will be necessary to question the goodness of the Good warped by the rustling of the there is and to ask whether the hazards of transcendence beyond being are justified by this goodness.
Being, then, is produced as a fold in the fabric of infinity, which Levinas diligently unfolds, first into the rustling of the there is , and second, into various attributes of ethics such as metaphysical desire, the encounter with alterity, and transcendence. Conversely, in ethical transcendence, the infinite alterity of the Other exceeds the finitude of the I and of the relations with the world it sustains, while the interestedness of the existent is replaced with the disinterestedness of what lies beyond essence Otherwise 5.
Hypostasis is enframed or delimited by two terms that are, themselves, unlimited and that, in this de-limitation, partake of one another: the there is and the infinity of the ethical. Beyond sense and consciousness, the I is obsessively moved and inspired to assume its responsibility for the Other and for the responsibility of the Other for the third, who is the anonymous Other of the Other. The emergence of the name against the noisy background of the nameless the name that remembers its origin and carries the fatal impulse of namelessness, reducing the interlocutor to silence crumples the infinite, even as it inscribes itself on this crumpled body.
The partial negation that attaches itself to the naming of beings is the negation proper to mastery and possession that repeat, in a diluted form, the violence of the there is. The work of being is the redoubled work of the negative that struggles on two fronts: against the unnamed singularity of the Other and against the nameless generality of the void. And it is those two fronts that merge in the movement of the ethical beyond being, setting it on the open-ended path toward absolute alterity. Sensation—and, above all, vision—is made possible by the forgetting of the nameless generality of the void Totality Yet the panoptic gaze, the extreme case of vision, reintroduces that which is forgotten.
It belongs to the spectator who transforms what is seen into a spectacle, that is, into a completely present, fully assembled and representable being. And precisely because this gaze folds being into itself, it cannot be seen. Invalidating the laws and the evidence of traditional phenomenology, vision is no longer the unity of the seeing and the seen.
The open monstrous eye is the night staring into the night that unwittingly taints the work of representation with an absence that yawns in the midst of the painstakingly assembled and synthesized presence. In the unutterable condition of the absolute denuding, it withdraws into the nocturnal realm no phenomenological light can illuminate and, maintaining the memory of the there is , expresses a trace of threatening facelessness.
Still, it would be wrong to assume that the face is merely secretive and invisible, for its self-expression overrides both vision and blindness. While the effaced and forgotten face is infected with the originary facelessness, its judgment leaves the I at the mercy of absolute exteriority. The singularity of the face joins forces with the generality of facelessness and shifts the horizons of being and presence. The pleats of infinity are everywhere ready to fade away.
The author or the doer is able to emerge victorious from the fight against the resistance of anonymous matter only by becoming the anonymous force behind creation, the force whose will, intentionality, and consciousness merge with the night of the there is. But to consume even the ashes of this consummation, as Levinas seems to demand in Otherwise Than Being 50 , is to work for the Other. Outside of the sociological and political-economic category of exploitation, to work for the Other is to take radical generosity to a new height of my disappearance behind my work, so that no return, no reflux of gratitude, may be expected from the recipient.
And indeed, there is no work that does not ultimately result in the obscurity of the worker whose interiority withdraws the moment the work is finally produced. As the passage for the work, the worker comes to pass behind it or else, dies in the work and, reaching the threshold of being, reverts into the other of the Other—the non-identical, unidentifiable, anonymous phantasm. Through them, the subject relives the agony of this cleft, in which the postponement, the infinite deferral of finitude, collides with the perpetual eventalization of the event. Death is deferred in that which dies, not in the anxiety experienced in its anticipation—this is the oldest mimetic defense, permitting one to become what one fears.
The transcendence of sense and labor approximates this becoming and stands for a de-scendence and dissolution back into the impersonal existence where the I does not survive its passage to the beyond. The itineraries of work and the gaze lead back to the silent Neuter of history and optics Totality 91, , if not even further to the absolute impersonality of the there is. In analogy to the sense bathed, from all sides, by the overwhelming stream of nonsense Otherwise , labor futilely resists the elemental signification of non-possession Totality The de-substantiation of the I, its melting away into the Neuter, that transpires in the gaze and in the product of labor, as well as the noisy monotony of non-sense and the element, challenge and ultimately flatten subjective, conceptual, and ontological borders.
But in addition to the pleats of being, labor, and sense, infinity folds upon itself, disclosing the site where ethical responsibility incorporates the there is. Anachronistically, the third precedes the I and the Other the first and the second and, demanding justice at the heart of ethics, threatens de facto to nullify the ethical relation by integrating the election of the irreplaceable I and the incomparable face of the Other into the procedures of conceptuality, comparison, and totalization.
The demand for justice does not exclude the prospect of reinstating a modified version of the anonymity of the there is in the very heart of ethics. But, for Levinas, the apparent betrayal of the ethical is not the opposite of ethics. The inter-face of the third in the face of the Other non-synthetically binds together the conjuncture and the divergence of the ethical and the political. On the contrary, it denotes the fullness of the trace awash with itself so that no dialectical negativity and overcoming of negativity would be required for its enunciation.
The anonymity of the unique resists the will to name at any price, which—for Levinas-refers to a certain variety of evil. This does not mean, however, that pure anonymity without uniqueness is the embodiment of the good. In its shadow, I can try to hide and evade my responsibility to and for the Other. But who, precisely, utters these words? Is the singled-out I named or nameless? Although the uniqueness of the name without a name wards off the fulfillment of death, it does not preclude the agony of dying in me, which corresponds to the anonymity of the unique within the Same.
Even so, the threshold is internal to the I who is interiority turned inside out. In contrast to the effects of the panoptic gaze and of labor, my justification intended for the Other does not detach me from the sign offered. But it will prove unfeasible to distill the purity of the ethical from the interiority that turns inside out in its exposure to the Other.
The noise of the boundless element transmitting the rustling of the there is keeps resounding in the dwelling it has never evacuated, just as the anarchy of obsession has never left consciousness alone, for both are always already broken into. Granted: transcendence in the face of the Other Basic 27 keeps the promise of justice for the I, for the Other, and for the third.
Instead of following the path of consciousness that sets up the name in the anonymity of the night Levinas Reader 32 , this invocation seeks the anonymity of the night in the name. A bracketing and reduction of the name, it unsays the said and reconstitutes it in the saying.
For the invisible and the inaudible to manifest themselves non-phenomenally, the facelessness in the face and the namelessness in the name must be able to speak. And yet, the extreme fragility of the not-yet-speech, of prayer, of the breath drawn before the first word is uttered—fainter than a whisper—beneath and beyond discourse, spells out a constant self-undermining of the invocation tempted to name the anonymous, be it the night, the void, or illeity.
The names of alterity name something other than alterity. It is, more precisely, a being unique in its anonymity, which is to say, the one who silently refuses the imposition of the generic name that suffocates the alterity it names and no less vehemently rejects pure namelessness. The non-givenness of the fullness awash with itself, the self-erasure of the trace on the other side of namelessness and the name, marks the face.
The overdetermined etymology of the face offers some clues to the strange convergence of anonymity and uniqueness I am sketching out here. The Hebrew word for the face, panim , shatter s the unity of the face in indicating a certain multiplicity in the plural ending -im. The third in the face of the Other does not stand for a latecomer who disturbs the ethical with the demand for justice, nor for a mere conjunctive, synchronous addition to the Other, nor for another example of the Other deduced from the same mysterious genus.
Rather, the third is part and parcel of the originary non-phenomenal formation—a formation lacking the formalism of form—of panim , which preserves the exceptional separation within its genus. The face, so understood, expresses the anarchic order of multiplicity.
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The French word for face, visage , also retains the overtones of order, albeit in a slightly different context. Associated with the verb viser to aim at , it upsets the Husserlian notion of intentionality. The self-expression of the face of the Other is a prayer answered more profoundly than any vocal revelation. Swerving from the initiative of discourse, the caressing hand without the eye is fixated on the pre-discursive abjuration of intentionality. Here the anonymity of the caress inflects the correlation of prayer and discourse and arrests saying in its track, forestalling its relapse into the said, or into the anonymity of the there is.
In the autotelic movement of the caress, self-absorbed anonymity denounces itself by internalizing inflecting all light without yielding a reflection. Ostensibly more personal and familiar, the second kind of darkness yields intimacy without distance, an ecstatic meltdown of boundaries between the I and the Other, who do not yet make their theatrical appearance in the first kind of night. Still, the indeterminacy of the nocturnal complicates the efforts at a conceptual differentiation.
Without a clear line of demarcation, one night passes into the other, as the vicissitudes of the nameless and the anonymous, of the denuded and the unveiled, entwine. Instead of marked borders, there are only wrinkles and pleats that migrate, vanish, and reappear, as the fabric is worn and worn out. The interpenetration of the two nights is another sign for our inability to ward off and to quarantine the rustling of the there is.
The prayer-flesh is, like the self-expression of the face, a prayer answered in the absence of any perceptible response or revelation and materialized in the night of corporeity. But, of course, any pre meditation is necessarily belated. The caress is already a post-meditation, an afterthought, and therefore a sign of guilt. The other is already dead or else, has already withdrawn, has gone elsewhere when the illeity of the third that animates it is excluded from the dyad of lovers, or when the face is horribly disfigured, owing to the fateful modification in its originary non-phenomenological formation.
The caress reaches nothing but the corporeity of a sentient corpse and wistfully strokes the wounds of rotting flesh. With the already dead, the pleats of infinity gather solemnly—as if attending to the deceased—in the uniqueness of anonymity. Such an incursion on the part of objectivity entails both more and less than the rustling of the there is. More than the there is , historical existence is differentiation and individuation in the trace of the absent existent imprinted in the works left behind.
Less than the there is , it brings forth its chroniclers, survivors, and witnesses of the past and, thereby, falls short of the complete destruction of every existent. Unlikely allies, phenomenology and history share the project of describing the other. It is this verbal concentration of a field of forces that gives rise to the economic par excellence , where the liminal writer pays with a newly gained anonymity for the uniqueness of the text.
Aiming at the face now read as visage one attempts to skew the asymmetry of the face-to-face in the direction of a quid pro quo , to target intentionality that essentially and from the very first aims at me and is intended toward me as an ethical order, or, perhaps, as an evil design, which I cannot decipher, make sense of, aim back at. More importantly, it is absolutely impossible to know which extreme the Other has chosen.
This impenetrable night of not-knowing is frightening, but what is even more terrifying what provokes the first murderous thought is not the face per se , but the facelessness of the face, 6 containing like a series of Russian dolls the trace of illeity harboring the residue of the there is in the face of the Other. But the impossibility of murder is inscribed in the very face of the Other Basic 16 and, more pogniantly, in the trace of the there is which it harbors, transmitting, like a seashell, the murmur and the laughter of impersonal existence that returns after every negation.
The violence of the unlimited negation Totality would find its insurmountable limit in the sole target it can posit. If we read between the lines of the ethical asymmetry and the self-erasure of signification in the face of the Other, we will discover that the Other cannot become an object of my outrage, nor even another subject analogous to me, without being converted into something other than the Other.
Any murderer who hits a target will invariably miss the Other. With regard to the second limitation of murder: the self-signifyingness of the face defies all horizons of meaning-bestowal, even as it signifies [ se signifie ] only itself Totality The horrifying and indifferent void of facelessness in the face of the Other comes into my purview only as sheer non-sense, as a foreign, thoroughly forgotten, and indecipherable hieroglyphic sign of the immemorial past.
Against the background of this unfathomably dense non-sense, the delusional wish to negate the Other interprets and, indeed, embraces murder as a function of sense. The truth of this ostensibly outlandish interpretation hides in the fundamental connection of murder with the prototype of phenomenological comportment, namely, the act of seeing. For vision to take place, every place must be abandoned for the empty, leveled, and homogeneous space, which already wrinkles the fabric of infinity, preparing the stage for the anticipated spectacle.
Repressing non-sense, sense tired of avoiding the void, which stubbornly recoils into itself, confronts—quite bluntly—the excessiveness of this impenetrable, mute menace. Vision rebels against the void, but in the course of this rebellion creates the monstrosity of a transparent and unwelcoming, placeless void of its own that co-originates with light itself. Mimetic preemption recurs. Here is the grasp that puts an end to the intentionality of grasping, sense that annihilates sense, light that extinguishes light.
The void of the there is and of illeity is not filled with darkness in the same way that voided space oozes light. The spatiality that enables vision is defined by the ever-expanding horizons of luminosity, postponing the fall of darkness whose ominous signs consign the gravity of vision to a dialectical child-play. As such, murder occupies the non-place of difference between the two voids and attacks each of them with the weapons of the other.
On the one hand, the act of murder breaches the horizon of luminosity by subsuming vision and comprehension under the blindness it borrows from the there is. On the other hand, this very act mirrors the lesser violence of vision, reflecting the light of perverse signification onto illeity hidden in the face of the Other. Exposure and closure, but also vision and blindness, intersect in the unbridgeable disjuncture of the void that divides the two voids and characterizes the aporetic situation of murder.
In a frantic attempt to void the Other, the murderer strikes at the finite difference faiblesse —the uniqueness and the exposedness of the face—and blends it with the infinity of anonymity and materiality from which the face arises. Ironing the pleats of infinity, murder brings time to a standstill, confines it to the atemporal instant thick with suspense, in which no happening—not even murder—is feasible.
Or, more precisely, murder invalidates itself in the course of its own execution. Although it seeks to escape from the horror of the there is Levinas Reader 33 , this self-defeating act is irrevocably trapped in a voided presence, in the aftermath, but also the antecedence of the desperate erasure read: integration, totalization of the I and the Other. But, though bloodless, the ethical is not free of violence.
It therefore behooves us to retrace the trace of the there is in the ethical and, perhaps, the foreshadowing of the ethical in the there is. Fair enough. In the period just before and during World War II, the plentitude of es gibt reverts into the bareness of il y a. The terrible hospitality of es gibt , the extreme openness of the closure in which the existent dwells, is unmatched even by the anonymity of the unique.
It prefigures the very essence of generosity. The impossibility to assume this radical generosity imposed on the existent, to inherit it directly from what—the it, das Es —gives, is the condition of possibility for generosity as such, since no true gift can institute an economy, or be repaid. At the heart of this impossible possibility is the non-mediate inflection of the there is in the face of the Other that both defies all horizons of meaning and bestows meaning on my existence in spite of my death Otherwise Inflected in the face of the Other, the light of meaning passes to the hither side of reflection, expression bypasses manifestation, in sum, existence is given and not given, exposed and opposed to the violence of acceptance.
From the standpoint of consciousness, the effects of passivity, in which I have been offered to the Other, redouble and resonate with the terror of the there is. My offering involuntarily responds to the prior immemorial reception of something existence, meaning in spite of my death, etc. The facelessness of the face is an inflection of anonymity in uniqueness, a glimpse of the finite difference faiblesse of the Other that ethically translates my fear of him into my fear for him, and my feeling of being trapped in essence into the glory of election.
Ethics does not repress or stifle the primordial terror of the there is , but capitalizes on its boundlessness and on the passivity it introduces into my existence 7. An unsettling question should arise before us at this point, namely, what determines the difference between two contrasting reactions to the finite difference of the Other: the pre-meditation of murder and my fear for the Other. Why does the caress disfigure the Other, while signification is moved by and for the Other in response to finite difference?
To recall the clandestine force of the caress is to be transported back and forth to the ambiguous territory beyond the face. What the caress encounters is faceless corporeity, the body already transfigured into a corpse, time already elapsed—hence, its voluptuous impatience Totality The caressing hand perpetually runs out of time.
And this is the heart of the question. But how? I would like to put forth a tentative hypothesis that the face is a site where the infinity of silent spaces the there is is temporalized. In other words, the face retains the terror evoked by the spatial infinity prior to hypostasis, all the while mixing this terror with its postponement that opens the dimension of temporality in the suspension of spatiality. And the by-product of this temporalization is the movement of signification. Is it the terror proper to the ethical qua ethical, or is it the terror ethics harnesses and appropriates?
Are we afraid of the ethical? Can this terror account for the constitution of the ethical, or does it, on the contrary, inflect, impede, and, perhaps, reroute the ethical movement of the Same to the Other, thereby terrorizing the fragility of the ethical? Or, to put it differently, is this terror foreign to ethics?
But this is not to say that these questions must stay unanswered. If we keep track of Levinas on the methodological course of feigning or simulating a response whose substantiality and content are inseparable from the act of feigning, then, perhaps, we will be on our way to the impossible epistemic adequation to the non-adequation of the ethical. Perhaps, then, terror is neither proper to, nor is harnessed by the ethical.
Might one not wonder whether the ambiguity of the relation between the il y a and illeity is essential to the articulation of the ethical in a manner that is analogous to the model of skepticism and its refutation, where the ghost of skepticism returns to haunt reason after each refutation? Evan Selinger. Even though Bruno Latour is renowned for appropriating anthropological resources to study Western technoscientific norms and practices, he has been criticized for ignoring colonial and postcolonial history.
Latour does not discuss ideology critique in order to enlarge its available definitions. Neither the aunt nor the priest ever considered the saligram as anything but a mere stone. By making it into the powerful object that must be touched by the pariahs, Jagannath transubstantiates the stone into a monstrous thing—and transmutes himself into a cruel god. Furthermore, Latour introduces the reader to Jagannath as if he were familiarizing us with the actions of a real person:. His name is Jagannath, and he has decided to break the spell of castes and untouchability by revealing to the pariahs that the sacred saligram , the powerful stone that protects his high-caste family, is nothing to be afraid of.
Anantha Murthy, remains a prominent figure in the literary world of Kannadan and Indian vernacular letters. What Latour interprets is but a fragment of the novel that first appears in English in Another India , a collection of translated vernacular Indian literature. The translations of prose and poetry that appear in Another India were originally composed in one of the dozens of vernaculars used in the subcontinent.
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Twentieth-Century American Poetry Complete texts of 50, poems by more than poets.
Twentieth-Century English Poetry Full texts of poetry from to the present. U Ulrichsweb Detailed information for current and closed periodicals published world-wide. Union List of Periodicals Lists journals and other covered items held by thousands of libraries. Go to Worldcat and limit search to "Serial Publications. App is available. App instructions: 1. Access UpToDate and create a personal account. Install app and enter account information. See video for demonstration. Items from other network's must be borrowed from Vanderbilt for viewing. Special news reports are recorded in addition to these newscasts, including material from other networks.
We record broadcasts as they are televised, provide the widest access allowable within copyright for scholarship and research, and preserve the content for future generations. The database currently includes 1,, records, including abstracts at the story level of regular evening newscasts and catalog records for each special news report.
Variety Archives Complete digital archives, present, of the weekly Variety and Daily Variety entertainment industry trade magazine. Issues from March 29, June 14, are missing. The archives contain every issue of Daily Variety, which began publication September 6, New issues of Variety and Daily Variety appear in the archive about a week after their publication dates.
Victorian Popular Culture Resource for the study of popular entertainment in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Search by subject, or age, or tag. Students learn to 'see what children know,' not through testing, but through careful observation. Teachers have higher-level conversations with children. Help children reflect on their actions and offer them better support for their thinking. See About for more information. W Westlaw Campus Research Business and legal resources, including state and federal laws and court cases.
Women's Periodicals of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century, Over American women's-related periodicals from the s to s. Because almost all of the women's periodicals by nature covered many topics, the titles included in this collection highlight radically changing perceptions of womanhood and ideas about the role of women over this period of time.
Texts are accompanied by contextual essays, sample syllabi and suggested assignments. Drawing heavily from the temperance and abolition movements, this collection includes periodicals from a number of female authors and publishers who helped to cement the foundations of women's active role in American social and religious movements.
Women's Periodicals of the Nineteenth Century, American women's periodicals from the latter part of the nineteenth century. Contents represent a broad range of subjects and places of publication, from religious and cultural periodicals from the South to domestic and parenting magazines from the North.
Women's Studies Encyclopedia Articles by scholars in a wide range of disciplines. See Introduction for more information. Cross searchable with the Vogue Archive. World Book Kids A child-oriented and interactive online encyclopedia. World History in Video Critically acclaimed documentaries ranging in history from the earliest civilizations to the late twentieth century. Browse the news by topic World Politics Review Original news and analysis on foreign policy, national security, and international affairs, to present.
Read about World Politics Review. World Shakespeare Bibliography Online Comprehensive record of Shakespeare-related scholarship and theatrical productions. Annotated entries for all important books, articles, book reviews, dissertations, theatrical productions, reviews of productions, audiovisual materials, electronic media, and other scholarly and popular materials related to Shakespeare and published or produced between and See Content for more information. WorldCat traditional Global catalog of books, serials, manuscript collections, etc.
X None at this time. Ask Us! Search Databases. A AAS Historical Periodicals American Antiquarian Society Full text digitized content of American periodicals published between and , divided into 50 thematic subsets that can be searched separately or together. Collections list with brief descriptions PDF Detailed collection descriptions and coverage lists. Collections: Women's Periodicals of the 18th and 19th Century, Women's Periodicals of the 19th Century, Women's Periodicals of the 19th Century, Detailed description and coverage lists. Indexes books, periodical articles, critical editions of literary works, book reviews and collections of essays published anywhere in the world from to the present.
It is an excellent resource for researching 20th and 21st century authors and literary trends. No Full Text available. Local, regional, national and international business news coverage of corporations, privately held companies, local start-ups, executive profiles, marketing, finance, and industry news. Coverage from present.
Scholarly journals, news magazines, and newspapers in various fields - many with full text and images. Coverage from 's to present. Funded by TEL. Fulltext multidisciplinary database of academic journals, magazines, periodicals and other reports, 19th century to present. Academic Search Ultimate is an excellent source of scholarly journals in all academic disciplines. More than 13, journals are indexed and full text is provided for more than 9, Searchable cited references are provided for selected titles.
Accessible Archives 18th and 19th century American newspapers, periodicals and county histories. Full text searchable database with page images for newspapers. Collection List. Fulltext of scholarly titles in American, European, and Middle Eastern history. An online collection of approximately 3, books of high quality in the humanities.
These titles are offered by the ACLS in collaboration with twenty-seven learned societies, over contributing publishers, and the MPublishing Division of the University of Michigan Library.
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The result is an online, fully searchable collection of high-quality books in the Humanities, recommended and reviewed by scholars. These are works of major importance that remain vital to both scholars and advanced students, and are frequently cited in the literature. Title List Excel. The most comprehensive collection of full-text articles and bibliographic records in existence today covering the fields of computing and information technology. The full-text database includes the complete collection of ACM's publications, including journals, conference proceedings, magazines, newsletters, and multimedia titles.
Journals, books, conference proceedings and more. African American Biographical Database AABD Over 30, biographical references and thousands of portraits of black Americans, both famous and lesser known, born approximately African American Historical Serials Collection. Digitized periodicals, reports, and annuals documenting history of African American life and religious organizations between and Content includes: More than unique titles related to African American life and culture Approximately 60, pages of searchable primary source content Reports and annuals from African American religious organizations and social service agencies, as well as African American periodicals Coverage list pdf Video tutorial on using EBSCO's Historical Digital Archives.
African American Music Reference will bring together 50, pages of text reference, biographies, chronologies, sheet music, images, lyrics, liner notes, and discographies which chronicle the diverse history and culture of the African American experience through music. The first release includes over 3, pages of reference, including a comprehensive set of biographies on the top African American composers, edited by Samuel Floyd, Jr. The aim of the collection is to bring together a wide range of materials, including comprehensive reference works, leading critical studies, biographies, oral histories, essays, anthologies, and historical works, together covering every genre and form, from Blues and Jazz to Hip Hop.
African American Newspapers Accessible Archives 19th century African American newspapers in full-text searchable form with page images. Contains nearly 3, poems by African American poets of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It provides a comprehensive survey of the early history of African American poetry, from the earliest published African American poems to the works of Paul Laurence Dunbar, the first African American poet to achieve national success and recognition. Online Bibliography. Agricola Indexing for journals, books, etc.
Containing bibliographic records from the U. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Library, this source provides access to millions of citations. The citations are comprised of journal articles, book chapters, theses and much more, covering all aspects of agriculture. Over periodical titles focusing on agriculture during the 19th century. Patient drug information in English and Spanish, written in lay language for consumers. Content updated monthly. Alexander Street Video Single, integrated, modular platform for streaming video in subject areas including history, dance, education, sports medicine, theatre, and more.
Alternative Faith and Philosophy Periodicals, Nineteenth-century American periodicals focusing on alternative religious beliefs, philosophies, and expressions. Alternative Medicine and Health Periodicals, Over periodicals dedicated to the concept of healthy living and alternative medicine. Limited to 5 simultaneous users. Access to BBC's video collection of 37 of Shakespeare's plays.
Videos can be viewed in their entirety or by act. Indexing for articles and more for U. Index of literature covering the history and culture of the United States and Canada, from prehistory to the present. Indexing for 1, journals from as far back as The Publications Division of the American Chemical Society provides the worldwide scientific community with a comprehensive collection of the most-cited, peer-reviewed journals in the chemical and related sciences. American Civil Liberties Union Papers, Records of the ACLU on free speech, citizenship, race, discrimination, immigration, labor, radicalism, and related topics.
American Civil War Periodicals, Periodicals that chronicle the Civil War from various perspectives. This release contains 2, authors and approximately , pages of diaries, letters and memoirs. Particular care has been taken to index this material so it can be searched more thoroughly than ever. Each source has been carefully chosen using leading bibliographies. Includes 4, pages of previously unpublished manuscripts such as the letters of Amos Wood and his wife and the diary of Maryland Planter William Claytor.
To access content, select a specific volume at the bottom of the page or search by date, topic, or author. American County Histories Accessible Archives Full text, searchable histories of American counties published before Collection Description. American Drama, Dramatic works from the early 18th century to the beginning of the 20th.
American Drama covers three centuries of rare and modern dramatic works that together have formed the internationally recognized voice that is American theater. More than 1, plays are available, from over playwrights. American Drama — reflects American dramatic writing in all its richness and diversity: plays in verse, farces, melodramas, minstrel shows, realist plays, frontier plays, temperance dialogues and a range of other genres are represented. American Fiction, More than 17, works of prose fiction written by Americans from the political beginnings of the United States through World War I.
Titles up until are sourced from Lyle H. Smith bibliography. American Film Scripts Online 1, film scripts with detailed, fielded information on the scenes, characters and people related to the scripts. Extensive indexing allows users to search by character, scene, race, nationality, age, subject, year of writing, and other elements. Title list Excel file. Up-to-date multinational business contact information in over countries and 20, industries.
American History in Video. Collection of video available online for the study of American history. American History in Video provides the largest and richest collection of video available online for the study of American history, with 2, hours and more than 5, titles on completion. American Memory: The 19th Century in Print Contains digital images of twenty-three popular periodicals from the 19th century. This collection presents twenty-three popular periodicals digitized by Cornell University Library and the Preservation Reformatting Division of the Library of Congress.
The longest run is for The North American Review, American National Biography Biographies of prominent deceased Americans. Offers portraits of more than 19, men and women- from all eras and walks of life--whose lives have shaped the nation. Help page FAQs. American Periodicals Series Indexing and page images of magazines and newspapers, and Includes digitized images of the pages of American magazines and journals published from colonial days to the dawn of the 20th century. American Poetry Over 40, poems by more than American poets from the Colonial Period to the early twentieth century.
American Society for Microbiology Journals on the study of microbes. ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology. With over 90 years of experience, ASM journals continue to be the leading source for the latest in microbiology research. American West, The Original manuscripts, ephemeral material trade cards, wanted posters, photos, claim certificates, news-sheets etc , maps, and rare printed works of 19th and early 20th century Western Americana.
Annual Reviews Full-text of all Annual Review publications in biomedical sciences, physical sciences and social sciences. This includes a complete backfile of all titles, some of which date back to Annual Reviews is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to provide the worldwide scientific community with a useful and intelligent synthesis of the primary research literature for a broad spectrum of scientific disciplines.
Anthropology Plus Index of periodical and journal articles from the early 19th century to today. Abstracts, indexing and selected fulltext for scientific and technical publications. Indexing and abstracts for nearly core English-language, scientific and technical publications back to Full text of articles is available from more than periodicals dating back to Content includes coverage of a wide variety of applied science specialties—acoustics to aeronautics, neural networks to nuclear and civil engineering, computers and informatics and much more.
Archive Finder Indexing for collections for U. Archive Finder is a current directory which describes over , collections of primary source material housed in thousands of repositories across the United States, the United Kingdom and Ireland. ArchiveGrid Searches historical documents held in archives across the world. ArchiveGrid connects you with primary source material held in archives, special collections, and manuscript collections around the world.
You will find historical documents, personal papers, family histories, and more. ArchiveGrid also helps researchers contact archives to request information, arrange a visit, and order copies. The collection includes publications only, and does not include access to data sets. Art Full Text H. Indexing, abstracts and fulltext for art journals, museum bulletins, etc. Featuring full-text articles, indexing and abstracts from an international array of publications, this database is a comprehensive resource covering fine, decorative and commercial art, as well as photography, folk art, film, architecture and much more.
Art Index Retrospective Indexing for for art and related fields, As an invaluable, in-depth record of contemporary art history, this database provides users with access to over half a century of high-quality indexing of art literature covering fine, decorative and commercial art dating back to Abstracts of journal articles, books, essays, exhibition catalogs, PhD dissertations, and exhibition reviews on all forms of modern and contemporary art.
Entries date back as far as the late s. The coverage of ABM is wide-ranging and includes performance art and installation works, video art, computer and electronic art, body art, graffiti, artist's books, theatre arts, conservation, crafts, ceramic and glass art, ethnic arts, graphic and museum design, fashion, and calligraphy, as well as traditional media including illustration, painting, printmaking, sculpture, and drawing. In-library use only. Index of articles from over 16, sources.
Subjects include business, humanities, medicine, popular culture, science, social sciences, and technology. Coverage from to present. ARTstor Digital images in the arts, architecture, humanities, and science. Associations Unlimited Encyclopedia of Associations Directory information for associations in all fields.
Nonprofit Organizations. Premier source for information on associations, professional societies, and nonprofit membership organizations. Find associations by name, acronym, location, subject, and any word search. AtoZ Maps Online Downloadable, royalty-free maps of all types, modern and antique. Categories include world, continent, country, state, antique, outline, topographic, ecology, etc.
AtoZ the World Country guides for countries, covering culture, history, travel, business, and more. See product brochure PDF for more content information. Contains thousands of fully searchable PDF files documenting the progression of audio research from to the present day.
What's in AustLit? Contains contextual and critical material not present in the print edition, including analytical essays, documentary records, music sources, a performance archive and an interactive timeline. Berg Fashion Library Image content on world dress and fashion throughout history. Limited to 1 simultaneous user.
Biography Reference Bank Periodical coverage of Biography Index, full-text articles, page images, and abstracts from Wilson databases including biographical profiles, feature articles, interviews, essays, book reviews, performance reviews, speeches, or obituaries. Indexing and fulltext articles for biology, agriculture and related. Black Thought and Culture Searchable texts of non-fiction work by prominent African Americans, to present.
Book Review Digest Plus. Citations and full-text book reviews from leading publications, to the present. Book Review Index. Index of book reviews, present. British Literary Manuscripts Online. Title List xls Product Overview pdf. BrowZine App. Mobile app for iOS and Android tablets and smartphones that allows you to browse, read and share articles from many of MTSU's subscribed journals. See the BrowZine research guide for more information.
Business Abstracts with Full Text. Including leading business magazines and trade and research journals for business research. Business Insights: Essentials Combines detailed company and industry information with scholarly journals, business news, and more. Business Source Complete. Scholarly business database with indexing and abstracts back to are included.
Canadian Poetry Complete texts of poems by Canadian poets, 18th to early 20th centuries. Careers Internet Database Current career information for many professions. Formerly known as Institute for Career Research. Catholic, Lutheran, Methodist, and Episcopal Periodicals, Periodicals focusing on the roots of various religions and theologies in the New World.
A collaboration between Choice and The Charleston Company. From the ccAdvisor navigation bar simply click Login and then click Create Account. Chemistry Class Advantage Lesson Demos. Children's Core Collection Selected list of fiction and nonfiction books, story collections and picture books recommended for readers in preschool through sixth grade.
Books are searchable by subject, author, grade level, Dewey Decimal number and more. Wason Collection on East Asia. Kroch Library of Cornell University. Mostly in English and published between c. The pamphlets have all been digitized in color and are full-text searchable. Many are illustrated and feature lavish cover art. More information available here. China: Trade, Politics and Culture, Manuscript materials detailing China's interaction with the West from Choice Reviews Online more Choice Reviews Quick Start Guide.
Chronicle of Higher Education. Higher education news, advice, and employment. Indexing and fulltext for nursing and allied fields, to present. Civil War Collection Accessible Archives Digital collection of newspapers, memoirs, pamphlets, and regimental histories from the Civil War period. Collection is divided into five parts that can be searched separately or together. Classical Music Library Streaming audio collection of classical music with more than , tracks.
Unlimited simultaneous users permitted. Classical Music Reference Library Comprehensive classical music reference database; includes Baker's music dictionary series. Title List Excel file. Cochrane Library Medical reviews, clinical trials, and more. CollegeSource Online Online catalogs and website links for most U. Commercial Periodicals from the Southern U.
Periodicals published in the South during the early to late nineteenth century that focus on broadly defined commercial and business concerns. Topics include agriculture, banking, business and industry, technology, railroads, and advertising, among other subjects, chronicling small and large plantation farming, the business of keeping slaves, transportation networks, and more. These materials range from letters or telegrams to comprehensive dispatches, investigative reports, and texts of treaties. The collection covers c.